// Steel

  • Types: coils, wire rods, rebars, beams
  • Loading in Continent, France, UK, Russia
  • Importing: Turkey, North Africa
  • non seasonal, related to automotive and construction industries and infrastructure

// Grain

  • Mostly wheat but also barley, rice, oats, seeds etc.
  • Typically a seasonal cargo, according to the harvests but can often be stored in silos for years and is therefore also shipped throughout the entire year
  • Exporting: Baltic, Continent, France, UK, Italy, Black Sea
  • Importing: North Africa, southern Europe but certain qualities are traded everywhere

// Forestry products

  • Actually an entire industry with logs (whole trees), sawn timber, woodpulp, paper (new or recycled)
  • Exported where forrests are not scarce: Sweden, Finland, Russia, Baltic countries but also from the Adriatic
  • Pulp exports depend on fibre quality. A lot is coming fromPortugal too
  • Imports: UK, Continent (Paper industry), North Africa (sawn timber for construction)

// Pellets

  • Either as a type of solid biofuel (e.g. woodpellets) or animal feed (e.g. sugar-beet pulp pellets)
  • Stowage factors vary strongly
  • If made from oily seeds, they can be hazardous¬† (flamable) and fall under imo cargo

// Minerals

  • Many different types such as silica sand, marble chippings, limestone, clay, attapulgite, salt etc.
  • Naturally heavy and non-hazardous material
  • often needs very clean holds for high purity in ceramic and glass production
  • De-icing salt is going into Northern Baltic and Norway mostly

// Wood chips

  • Solid fuel type (renewable energy source)
  • Usually high stowage factors, depending on source and type of the wood
  • By-product of wood processing
  • Can be hazardous in form of self-ignition and/or oxygen-depletion in cargo holds

// Animal feed

  • Various products such as pellets, meal, feed phosphate, some seeds
  • Export: Continent, Russia, Ukraine
  • Import: UK, Ireland

// Fertilizer

  • Kali, Nitrates, Uea
  • Partly seasonal (fall and spring) as needed in farming
  • Exports: Morocco, Algeria (Phosphate), Germany, Belarus, Russia (Kali), Egypt, Algeria, Russia (Urea, where gas is produced)

// Coal

  • various types such as steamcoal, metcoke, anthracite etc.
  • No dry-bulk commodity is transported more
  • Used for energy production, heating plants and steel production mostly
  • Exported from Sweden into continent (often for further transshipment) and from Black Sea (Russia and Ukraine)
  • Some types are hazardous

// Scrap metal

  • various types like heavy-metal scrap (hms), stainless steel scrap or turnings
  • often harmful to the paint in vessels holds, therefore not preferred by many owners
  • needs to be loaded carefully so that no motor blocks are dropped on the tanktop (soft landing clause)
  • Can be hazardous when oily (especially turnings)

// Cement

  • Carried in bags and bulk (requires feeding holes and thorough cleaning afterwards)
  • Exporting: Turkey, Spain, Portugal, France
  • Importing: North Africa, West Africa and wherever there is a lot of construction
  • Non-seasonal
  • Not all ships carry cement in bulk in order to maintain the cargo hold clean.